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Publications

"Determining the linewidth enhancement factor via optical feedback in quantum dot micropillar lasers"

S. Holzinger, S. Kreinberg, B. H. Hokr, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, W. W. Chow, X. Porte and S. Reitzenstein
The linewidth enhancement factor α is a key parameter determining the spectral and dynamical behavior of semiconductor lasers. Here, we propose and demonstrate a method for determining this parameter based on a direct measurement of variations in the laser gain and emission spectrum when subject to delayed optical feedback. We then use our approach to determine the pump current dependent linewidth enhancement factor of a high-β quantum dot micropillar laser. The validity of our approach is confirmed comparing it to two conventional methods, one based on the comparison of the linewidths above and below threshold and the other based on injection locking properties. Furthermore, the pump power dependence of α is quantitatively described by simulations based on a quantum-optical model.
S. Holzinger et al., Determining the linewidth enhancement factor via optical feedback in quantum dot micropillar lasers, Opt. Express, OSA, 26, 31363-31371 (2018)
 
"Quantum-optical influences in optoelectronics—An introduction"

Chow, W. W. and Reitzenstein, S.
This focused review discusses the increasing importance of quantum optics in the physics and engineering of optoelectronic components. Two influences relating to cavity quantum electrodynamics are presented. One involves the development of low threshold lasers, when the channeling of spontaneous emission into the lasing mode becomes so efficient that the concept of lasing needs revisiting. The second involves the quieting of photon statistics to produce single-photon sources for applications such as quantum information processing. An experimental platform, consisting of quantum-dot gain media inside micro- and nanocavities, is used to illustrate these influences of the quantum mechanical aspect of radiation. An overview is also given on cavity quantum electrodynamics models that may be applied to analyze experiments or design devices.
W. W. Chow and S. Reitzenstein, Quantum-optical influences in optoelectronics—An introduction, Applied Physics Reviews 5, 041302 (2018)
"Fabrication of dense diameter-tuned quantum dot micropillar arrays for applications in photonic information processing"

Heuser,Tobias and Große,Jan and Kaganskiy,Arsenty and Brunner,Daniel and Reitzenstein,Stephan
We report on the realization of a dense, large-scale array of 900 quantum dot micropillar cavities with high spectral homogeneity. We target applications in photonic information processing such as optical reservoir computing which can be implemented in large arrays of optically coupled microlasers. To achieve the required spectral homogeneity for the underlying optical injection locking, we calculate and set the diameter of each individual micropillar within the array during the fabrication process by taking the diameter-dependent emission wavelength of the microcavities into account. Using this kind of diameter adjustment, we improve the overall wavelength homogeneity in a 30 × 30 micropillar array by 64% and reduce the standard deviation of the resonance energy distribution by 26% from 352 μeV in the planar unprocessed sample to 262 μeV in the fabricated array. In addition, we present a detailed analysis of the device quality and the diameter control of the micropillar’s emission wavelength, which includes important information for the effective application of the developed fabrication method for the realization of highly homogeneous micropillar arrays in the future.
T. Heuser et al., Fabrication of dense diameter-tuned quantum dot micropillar arrays for applications in photonic information processing, APL Photonics 3, 116103 (2018)
"Quantum-optical spectroscopy of a two-level system using an electrically driven micropillar laser as a resonant excitation source"

S. Kreinberg, T. Grbesic, M. Strauss, A. Carmele, M. Emmerling, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, X. Porte and S. Reitzenstein
Two-level emitters constitute main building blocks of photonic quantum systems and are model systems for the exploration of quantum optics in the solid state. Most interesting is the strict-resonant excitation of such emitters to generate close to ideal quantum light and to control their occupation coherently. Up till now related experiments have been performed exclusively using bulky lasers which hinders the application of resonantly driven two-level emitters in photonic quantum systems. Here we perform quantum-optical spectroscopy of a two-level system using a compact high-β microlaser as excitation source. The two-level system is based on a semiconductor quantum dot (QD), which is excited resonantly by a fiber-coupled electrically driven micropillar laser. In this way we dress the excitonic state of the QD under continuous wave excitation and trigger the emission of single-photons with strong multi-photon suppression (g(2)(0)=0.02) and high photon indistinguishably (V=57 ± 9%) via pulsed resonant excitation at 156 MHz.
S. Kreinberg et al., Quantum-optical spectroscopy of a two-level system using an electrically driven micropillar laser as a resonant excitation source, Light: Science & Applications 7, 41 (2018)
ArXiv e-prints, 1711.09705 (2017)
"Tailoring the mode-switching dynamics in quantum-dot micropillar lasers via time-delayed optical feedback"

Steffen Holzinger, Christoph Redlich, Benjamin Lingnau, Marco Schmidt, Martin von Helversen, Jörn Beyer, Christian Schneider, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, Kathy Lüdge, Xavier Porte and Stephan Reitzenstein
Microlasers are ideal candidates to bring the fascinating variety of nonlinear complex dynamics found in delay-coupled systems to the realm of quantum optics. Particularly attractive is the possibility of tailoring the devices' emission properties via non-invasive delayed optical coupling. However, until now scarce research has been done in this direction. Here, we experimentally and theoretically investigate the effects of delayed optical feedback on the mode-switching dynamics of an electrically driven bimodal quantum-dot micropillar laser, characterizing its impact on the micropillar's output power, optical spectrum and photon statistics. Feedback is found to influence the switching dynamics and its characteristics time scales. In addition, stochastic switching is reduced with the subsequent impact on the microlaser photon statistics. Our results contribute to the comprehension of feedback-induced phenomena in micropillar lasers and pave the way towards the external control and tailoring of the properties of these key systems for the nanophotonics community. S. Holzinger et al., Tailoring the mode-switching dynamics in quantum-dot micropillar lasers via time-delayed optical feedback, Opt. Express 26 (17), 22457--22470 (2018)
"Mutual coupling and synchronization of optically coupled quantum-dot micropillar lasers at ultra-low light levels"

Sören Kreinberg, Xavier Porte, David Schicke, Benjamin Lingnau, Christian Schneider, Sven Höfling, Kathy Lüdge, Stephan Reitzenstein
In this work we explore the limits of synchronization of mutually coupled oscillators at the crossroads of classical and quantum physics. In order to address this uncovered regime of synchronization we apply electrically driven quantum dot micropillar lasers operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. These high-β microscale lasers feature cavity enhanced coupling of spontaneous emission and operate at output powers on the order of 100 nW. We selected pairs of micropillar lasers with almost identical optical properties in terms of the input-output dependence and the emission energy which we mutually couple over a distance of about 1\~m and bring into spectral resonance by precise temperature tuning. By excitation power and detuning dependent studies we unambiguously identify synchronization of two mutually coupled high-β microlasers via frequency locking associated with a sub-GHz locking range. A detailed analysis of the synchronization behavior includes theoretical modeling based on semi-classical stochastic rate equations and reveals striking differences from optical synchronization in the classical domain with negligible spontaneous emission noise and optical powers usually well above the mW range. In particular, we observe deviations from the classically expected locking slope and broadened locking boundaries which are successfully explained by the fact the quantum noise plays an important role in our cavity enhanced optical oscillators. Beyond that, introducing additional self-feedback to the two mutually coupled microlasers allows us to realize zero-lag synchronization. Our work provides important insight into synchronization of optical oscillators at ultra-low light levels and has high potential to pave the way for future experiments in the quantum regime of synchronization. S. Kreinberg et al., Mutual coupling and synchronization of optically coupled quantum-dot micropillar lasers at ultra-low light levels, ArXiv e-prints, 1808.01483 (2018)
"Photon number-resolved measurement of an exciton-polariton condensate"

M. Klaas, E. Schlottmann, H. Flayac, F. P. Laussy, F. Gericke, M. Schmidt, M. v. Helversen, J. Beyer, S. Brodbeck, H. Suchomel, S. Höfling, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider
We measure the full photon-number distribution emitted from a Bose condensate of microcavity exciton-polaritons confined in a micropillar cavity. The statistics are acquired by means of a photonnumber resolving transition edge sensor. We directly observe that the photon-number distribution evolves with the non-resonant optical excitation power from geometric to quasi-Poissonian statistics, which is canonical for a transition from a thermal to a coherent state. Moreover, the photon-number distribution allows evaluating the higher-order photon correlations, shedding further light on the coherence formation and phase transition of the polariton condensate. The experimental data is analyzed in terms of thermal coherent states which allows one to directly extract the thermal and coherent fraction from the measured distributions. These results pave the way for a full understanding of the contribution of interactions in light-matter condensates in the coherence buildup at threshold. M. Klaas et al., Photon number-resolved measurement of an exciton-polariton condensate, Phys. Rev. Lett. 121, 047401 (2018) ArXiv e-prints, 1805.02959 (2018)
"Exploring the Photon-Number Distribution of Bimodal Microlasers with a Transition Edge Sensor"

Elisabeth Schlottmann, Martin von Helversen, Heinrich A. M. Leymann, Thomas Lettau, Felix Krüger, Marco Schmidt, Christian Schneider, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, Jörn Beyer, Jan Wiersig, Stephan Reitzenstein
A photon-number-resolving transition edge sensor (TES) is used to measure the photon-number distribution of two microcavity lasers. The investigated devices are bimodal microlasers with similar emission intensity and photon statistics with respect to the photon autocorrelation. Both high-β microlasers show partly thermal and partly coherent emission around the lasing threshold. For higher pump powers, the strong mode of microlaser A emits Poissonian distributed photons, while the emission of the weak mode is thermal. By contrast, laser B shows a bistability resulting in overlayed thermal and Poissonian distributions. While a standard Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment cannot distinguish between the simple thermal emission of laser A and the temporal mode switching of the bistable laser B, TESs allow us to measure the photon-number distribution, which provides important insight into the underlying emission processes. Indeed, our experimental data and their theoretical description by a master equation approach show that TESs are capable of revealing subtle effects like the mode switching of bimodal microlasers. As such, we clearly demonstrate the benefit and importance of investigating nanophotonic devices via photon-number-resolving transition edge sensors. E. Schlottmann et al.,Exploring the Photon-Number Distribution of Bimodal Microlasers, Phys. Rev. Applied 9, 064030 (2018)
ArXiv eprints 1709.04312 (2017)
"Wigner time delay induced by a single quantum dot"

Strauss, M. and Hohn, M. and Schneider, C. and Höfling, S. and Wolters, J. and Reitzenstein, S.
Resonant scattering of weak coherent laser pulses on a single two-level system (TLS) realized in a semiconductor quantum dot is investigated. A time delay between incoming and scattered light is observed and studied as a function of the spectral detuning between the TLS and the exciting laser. We observe delays of up to 530 ps in our experiments which is ultimately limited by the pure dephasing time $T_2$. This type of time delay was predicted by Wigner in 1955 for purely coherent scattering and was confirmed experimentally in 2013 for an atomic system [Bourgain2013]. Our work addresses this effect for a solid state system in which the presence of pure dephasing leads to additional incoherent scattering and deviations from Wigner's theory. We observe delays of up to 530 ps in our experiments which is ultimately limited by the pure dephasing time $T_2$ = 445 ps. M. Strauss et al., Wigner time delay induced by a single quantum dot, ArXiv e-prints, 1805.06357 (2018)
"Deterministic integration of quantum dots into on-chip multi-mode interference beamsplitters using in-situ electron beam lithography"

Schnauber, P.; Schall, J.; Bounouar, S.; Höhne, T.; Park, S.-I.; Ryu, G.-H.; Heindel, T.; Burger, S.; Song, J.-D.; Rodt, S. and Reitzenstein, S.
The development of multi-node quantum optical circuits has attracted great attention in recent years. In particular, interfacing quantum-light sources, gates and detectors on a single chip is highly desirable for the realization of large networks. In this context, fabrication techniques that enable the deterministic integration of pre-selected quantum-light emitters into nanophotonic elements play a key role when moving forward to circuits containing multiple emitters. Here, we present the deterministic integration of an InAs quantum dot into a 50/50 multi-mode interference beamsplitter via in-situ electron beam lithography. We demonstrate the combined emitter-gate interface functionality by measuring triggered single-photon emission on-chip with g^{(2)}(0) = 0.13 ± 0.02. Due to its high patterning resolution as well as spectral and spatial control, in-situ electron beam lithography allows for integration of pre-selected quantum emitters into complex photonic systems. Being a scalable single-step approach, it paves the way towards multi-node, fully integrated quantum photonic chips. P. Schnauber et al., Deterministic integration of quantum dots into on-chip multi-mode interference beamsplitters using in-situ electron beam lithography, Nano Letters (2018) ArXiv eprints 1712.03837 (2017)
"Controlling the gain contribution of background emitters in few-quantum-dot microlasers"

F Gericke, M Segnon, M von Helversen, C Hopfmann, T Heindel, C Schneider, S Höfling, M Kamp, A Musiał, X Porte, C Gies and S Reitzenstein
We provide experimental and theoretical insight into single-emitter lasing effects in a quantum dot (QD)-microlaser under controlled variation of background gain provided by off-resonant discrete gain centers. For that purpose, we apply an advanced two-color excitation concept where the background gain contribution of off-resonant QDs can be continuously tuned by precisely balancing the relative excitation power of two lasers emitting at different wavelengths. In this way, by selectively exciting a single resonant QD and off-resonant QDs, we identify distinct single-QD signatures in the lasing characteristics and distinguish between gain contributions of a single resonant emitter and a countable number of off-resonant background emitters to the optical output of the microlaser. Our work addresses the important question whether single-QD lasing is feasible in experimentally accessible systems and shows that, for the investigated microlaser, the single-QD gain needs to be supported by the background gain contribution of off-resonant QDs to reach the transition to lasing. Interestingly, while a single QD cannot drive the investigated micropillar into lasing, its relative contribution to the emission can be as high as 70% and it dominates the statistics of emitted photons in the intermediate excitation regime below threshold. F. Gericke et al.,Controlling the gain contribution of background emitters in few-quantum-dot microlasers, New Journal of Physics 20, 023036 (2018) ArXiv eprints 1711.09235 (2017)
"Micropillars with a controlled number of site-controlled quantum dots"

A. Kaganskiy, F. Gericke, T. Heuser, T. Heindel, X. Porte and S. Reitzenstein
We report on the realization of micropillars with site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) in the active layer. The SCQDs are grown via the buried stressor approach which allows for the positioned growth and device integration of a controllable number of QDs with high optical quality. This concept is very powerful as the number and the position of SCQDs in the cavity can be simultaneously controlled by the design of the buried stressor. The fabricated micropillars exhibit a high degree of position control for the QDs above the buried stressor and Q-factors of up to 12000 at an emission wavelength around 930 nm. We experimentally analyze and numerically model the cavity Q-factor, the mode volume, the Purcell factor and the photon-extraction efficiency as a function of the aperture diameter of the buried stressor. Exploiting these SCQD micropillars, we experimentally observe the Purcell enhancement in the single-QD regime with F_P = 4.3 ± 0.3. A. Kaganskiy et al., Micropillars with a controlled number of site-controlled quantum dots, Applied Physics Letters 112, 071101 (2018) ArXiv eprints 1711.09235 (2017)
"A quantum optical study of thresholdless lasing features in high-β nitride nanobeam cavities"

Jagsch, Stefan and Triviño, Noelia Vico and Lohof, Frederik and Callsen, Gordon and Kalinowski, Stefan and Rousseau, Ian M and Barzel, Roy and Carlin, Jean-François and Jahnke, Frank and Butté, Raphaël and Gies, Christopher and Hoffmann, Axel and Grandjean, Nicolas and Reitzenstein, Stephan
Exploring the limits of spontaneous emission coupling is not only one of the central goals in the development of nanolasers, it is also highly relevant regarding future large-scale photonic integration requiring energy-efficient coherent light sources with a small footprint. Recent studies in this field have triggered a vivid debate on how to prove and interpret lasing in the high-β regime. We investigate close-to-ideal spontaneous emission coupling in GaN nanobeam lasers grown on silicon. Such nanobeam cavities allow for efficient funneling of spontaneous emission from the quantum well gain material into the laser mode. By performing a comprehensive optical and quantum-optical characterization, supported by microscopic modeling of the nanolasers, we identify high-β lasing at room temperature and show a lasing transition in the absence of a threshold nonlinearity at 156 K. This peculiar characteristic is explained in terms of a temperature and excitation power-dependent interplay between zero-dimensional and two-dimensional gain contributions. S. Jagsch et al., A quantum optical study of thresholdless lasing features in high-β nitride nanobeam cavities, Nature Communications 9, 564 (2018)
"A stand-alone fiber-coupled single-photon source"

Schlehahn, Alexander and Fischbach, Sarah and Schmidt, Ronny and Kaganskiy, Arsenty and Strittmatter, André and Rodt, Sven and Heindel, Tobias and Reitzenstein, Stephan
In this work, we present a stand-alone and fiber-coupled quantum-light source. The plug-and-play device is based on an optically driven quantum dot delivering single photons via an optical fiber. The quantum dot is deterministically integrated in a monolithic microlens which is precisely coupled to the core of an optical fiber via active optical alignment and epoxide adhesive bonding. The rigidly coupled fiber-emitter assembly is integrated in a compact Stirling cryocooler with a base temperature of 35 K. We benchmark our practical quantum device via photon auto-correlation measurements revealing g(2)(0) = 0.07 ± 0.05 under continuous-wave excitation and we demonstrate triggered non-classical light at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The long-term stability of our quantum light source is evaluated by endurance tests showing that the fiber-coupled quantum dot emission is stable within 4% over several successive cool-down/warm-up cycles. Additionally, we demonstrate non-classical photon emission for a user-intervention-free 100-hour test run and stable single-photon count rates up to 11.7 kHz with a standard deviation of 4%. A. Schlehahn et al., A stand-alone fiber-coupled single-photon source, Scientific Reports 8, 1340 (2018)
"Accessing the dark exciton in deterministic quantum-dot microlenses"

T. Heindel, A. Thoma, I. Schwartz, E. R. Schmidgall, L. Gantz, D. Cogan, M. Strauß, P. Schnauber, M. Gschrey, J.-H. Schulze, A. Strittmatter, S.Rodt, D. Gershoni and S. Reitzenstein
The dark exciton state in semiconductor quantum dots constitutes a long-lived solid-state qubit which has the potential to play an important role in implementations of solid-state based quantum information architectures. In this work, we exploit deterministically fabricated QD microlenses with enhanced photon extraction, to optically prepare and readout the dark exciton spin and observe its coherent precession. The optical access to the dark exciton is provided via spin-blockaded metastable biexciton states acting as heralding state, which are identified deploying polarization-sensitive spectroscopy as well as time-resolved photon cross-correlation experiments. Our experiments reveal a spin-precession period of the dark exciton of (0.82±0.01)ns corresponding to a fine-structure splitting of (5.0±0.7) μeV between its eigenstates |↑⇑±↓⇓⟩. By exploiting microlenses deterministically fabricated above pre-selected QDs, our work demonstrates the possibility to scale up implementations of quantum information processing schemes using the QD-confined dark exciton spin qubit, such as the generation of photonic cluster states or the realization of a solid-state-based quantum memory. T. Heindel et al., Accessing the dark exciton in deterministic quantum-dot microlenses, APL Photonics 2, 121303 (2017) featured headliner | Press Release

 

 

"Correlations of cascaded photons: An analytical study in the two-photon Mollow regime"

A. Carmele, S. Bounouar, M. Strauss, S. Reitzenstein and A. Knorr
Mollow physics in the two-photon regime shows interesting features such as path-controlled time-reordering of photon pairs without the need to delay them. Here, we calculate analytically the two-photon correlations g(2)(τ), essential to discuss and study such phenomena in the resonant-driven dressed-state regime. It is shown that there exists upper and lower bounds of the g(2)(τ)−function for certain spectrally-selected photon pairs. Recent reported experiments agree with the presented theory and thereby it is shown that the resonant-driven four-level system is an interesting source for steerable quantum light in quantum cascade setups. We furthermore discuss the unlikeliness to observe antibunching for the delay time τ=0 in the exciton-biexciton correlation functions in such experiments, since antibunching stems from a coherent and in-phase superposition of different photon emission events. Due to the occuring laser photon scattering, this coherent superposition state is easily disturbed and leads to correlation functions of g(2)(0) = 1 A. Carmele, S. Bounouar, M. Strauss, S. Reitzenstein and A. Knorr, Correlations of cascaded photons: An analytical study in the two-photon Mollow regime, ArXiv e-prints 1710.03031 (2017)
"Enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency of site-controlled quantum dots by deterministically fabricated microlenses"

Arsenty Kaganskiy, Sarah Fischbach, Andre Strittmatter, Tobias Heindel, Sven Rodt, Stephan Reitzenstein
We report on the realization of scalable single-photon sources (SPSs) based on a single site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD) and deterministically fabricated microlenses. The fabrication process comprises the buried-stressor growth technique complemented with low-temperature in-situ electron-beam lithography for the integration of SCQDs into microlens structures with high yield and high alignment accuracy. The microlens-approach leads to a broadband enhancement of the photon extraction efficiency of up to (21 ± 2 %) and a high suppression of multi-photon events with g(2)(τ = 0) < 0.06 without background subtraction. As such the combination of site-controlled growth of QDs and in-situ electron-beam lithography is relevant for arrays of efficient SPSs which can be applied in photonic quantum circuits and advanced quantum computation schemes. A. Kaganskiy et al., Enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency of site-controlled quantum dots by deterministically fabricated microlenses, Optics Communications, 418, 162-166 (2018) ArXiv e-prints, 1708.03512 (2017)
"Strong light-matter coupling in the presence of lasing"

Christopher Gies, Fabian Gericke, Paul Gartner, Steffen Holzinger, Caspar Hopfmann, Tobias Heindel, Janik Wolters, Christian Schneider, Matthias Florian, Frank Jahnke, Sven. Höfling, Martin Kamp, Stephan Reitzenstein
Insight is given into the regime where strong light-matter coupling and lasing coincide in cavity- QED systems. An analytic expression is provided for the emission spectrum and for the condition marking the transition from strong to weak coupling that remains valid close to the laser threshold. In a direct comparison between theory and experiment, we demonstrate the applicability of our approach and give evidence for the coexistence of strong coupling and lasing in a high-beta quantum- dot microcavity laser. We address the limitations of present realizations of quantum-dot microlasers operating in the strong coupling regime and derive parameters under which true single emitter lasing can be achieved in the future. C. Gies et al., Strong light-matter coupling in the presence of lasing, Phys. Rev. A 96, 023806 (2017) ArXiv e-prints 1606.05591 (2016)
"Pump-Power-Driven Mode Switching in a Microcavity Device and Its Relation to Bose-Einstein Condensation"

H. A. M. Leymann, D. Vorberg, T. Lettau, C. Hopfmann, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Ketzmerick, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, and A. Eckardt
We investigate the switching of the coherent emission mode of a bimodal microcavity device, occurring when the pump power is varied. We compare experimental data to theoretical results and identify the underlying mechanism based on the competition between the effective gain, on the one hand, and the intermode kinetics, on the other.When the pumping is ramped up, above a threshold, the mode with the largest effective gain starts to emit coherent light, corresponding to lasing. In contrast, in the limit of strong pumping, it is the intermode kinetics that determines which mode acquires a large occupation and shows coherent emission. We point out that this latter mechanism is akin to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of massive bosons. Thus, the mode switching in our microcavity device can be viewed as a minimal instance of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. Moreover, we show that the switching from one cavity mode to the other always occurs via an intermediate phase where both modes are emitting coherent light and that it is associated with both superthermal intensity fluctuations and strong anticorrelations between both modes. H.A.M. Leymann et al., Pump-Power-Driven Mode Switching in a Microcavity Device and Its Relation to Bose-Einstein Condensation, Phys. Rev. X 7, 021045 (2017) ArXiv e-prints, 1612.04312 (2016)
"Single Quantum Dot with Microlens and 3D-Printed Micro-objective as Integrated Bright Single-Photon Source"

Sarah Fischbach, Alexander Schlehahn, Alexander Thoma, Nicole Srocka, Timo Gissibl, Simon Ristok, Simon Thiele, Arsenty Kaganskiy, André Strittmatter, Tobias Heindel, Sven Rodt, Alois Herkommer, Harald Giessen, and Stephan Reitzenstein
Integrated single-photon sources with high photonextraction efficiency are key building blocks for applications in the field of quantum communications. We report on a bright singlephoton source realized by on-chip integration of a deterministic quantum dot microlens with a 3D-printed multilens micro-objective. The device concept benefits from a sophisticated combination of in situ 3D electron-beam lithography to realize the quantum dot microlens and 3D femtosecond direct laser writing for creation of the micro-objective. In this way, we obtain a high-quality quantum device with broadband photon-extraction efficiency of (40 ± 4)% and high suppression of multiphoton emission events with g(2)(τ = 0) < 0.02. Our results highlight the opportunities that arise from tailoring the optical properties of quantum emitters using integrated optics with high potential for the further development of plug-and-play fiber-coupled single-photon sources. S. Fischbach et al.,Single Quantum Dot with Microlens and 3D-Printed Micro-objective as Integrated Bright Single-Photon Source, ACS Photonics ASAP (2017)
"Path-Controlled Time Reordering of Paired Photons in a Dressed Three-Level Cascade"

Samir Bounouar, Max Strauß, Alexander Carmele, Peter Schnauber, Alexander Thoma, Manuel Gschrey, Jan-Hindrik Schulze, André Strittmatter, Sven Rodt, Andreas Knorr, and Stephan Reitzenstein
The two-photon dressing of a “three-level ladder” system, here the ground state, the exciton, and the biexciton of a semiconductor quantum dot, leads to new eigenstates and allows one to manipulate the time ordering of the paired photons without unitary postprocessing.We show that, after spectral postselection of the single dressed states, the time ordering of the cascaded photons can be removed or conserved. Our joint experimental and theoretical study demonstrates the high potential of a “ladder” system to be a versatile source of orthogonally polarized, bunched or antibunched pairs of photons. Physical Review Letters 118, 233601 (2017) doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.233601 ArXiv e-prints, 1610.08268 (2016)
"Emission from quantum-dot high-microcavities: transition from spontaneous emission to lasing and the effects of superradiant emitter coupling"

S. Kreinberg, W. W. Chow, J. Wolters, C. Schneider, C. Gies, F. Jahnke, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, S. Reitzenstein
Measured and calculated results are presented on the emission properties of a new class of emitters operating in the cavity quantum electrodynamics regime. The structures are based on high-finesse GaAs/AlAs micropillar cavities, each with an active medium consisting of a layer of InGaAs quantum dots and distinguishing feature of having substantial fraction of spontaneous emission channeled into one cavity mode (high-beta factor). This paper shows that the usual criterion for lasing with a conventional (low-beta factor) cavity, a sharp nonlinearity in an input-output curve accompanied by noticeable linewidth narrowing, has to be reinforced by the equal-time second-order photon autocorrelation function for confirming lasing. It will also show that the equal-time second-order photon autocorrelation function is useful for recognizing superradiance, a manifestation of the correlations possible in high- microcavities operating with quantum dots. In terms of consolidating the collected data and identifying the physics underlying laser action, both theory and experiment suggest a sole dependence on intracavity photon number. Evidence for this comes from all our measured and calculated data on emission coherence and fluctuation, for devices ranging from LEDs and cavity-enhanced LEDs to lasers, lying on the same two curves: one for linewidth narrowing versus intracavity photon number and the other for g(2)(0) versus intracavity photon number. Light: Science & Applications (2017) 6, e17030; doi: 10.1038/lsa.2017.30. ArXiv e-prints, 1610.04129 (2016)
On-chip optoelectronic feedback in a micropillar laser-detector assembly

Pierce Munnelly, Benjamin Lingnau, Matthias M. Karow, Tobias Heindel, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, Kathy Lüdge, Christian Schneider, and Stephan Reitzenstein
Implementing time-delayed feedback in optoelectronic circuits allows one to uncover the rich physics and application potential of nonlinear dynamics. Important feedback effects are, for instance, the generation of broadband chaos, or laser self-pulsing. We explore the effect of optoelectronic feedback in an ultracompact microlaser–microdetector assembly operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED). This system is used to generate self-pulsing at MHz frequencies in the emission of a microlaser, which is qualitatively explained by a rate equation model taking cQED effects into account. The results show promise for exploring chaos in ultracompact nanophotonic systems and for technological approaches toward chaos-based secure communication, random number generation, and self-pulsed single photon sources on a highly integrated semiconductor platform. P. Munnelly et al., On-chip optoelectronic feedback in a micropillar laser-detector assembly , Optica 4, 303–306 (2017) See Press Release: Chaotische Lichtpulse in winzigen Quantenbauteilen
Transition from Jaynes-Cummings to Autler-Townes ladder in a quantum dot-microcavity system

Caspar Hopfmann, Alexander Carmele, Anna Musiał, Christian Schneider, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, Andreas Knorr, Stephan Reitzenstein
We study experimentally and theoretically a coherently-driven strongly-coupled quantum dot-microcavity system. Our focus is on physics of the unexplored intermediate excitation regime where the resonant laser field dresses a strongly-coupled single exciton-photon (polariton) system resulting in a ladder of laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings states. In that case both the coupling of the emitter to the confined light field of the microcavity and to the light field of the external laser are equally important, as proved by observation of injection pulling of the polariton branches by an external laser. This intermediate interaction regime is of particular interest since it connects the purely quantum mechanical Jaynes-Cummings ladder and the semi-classical Autler-Townes ladder. Exploring the driving strength-dependence of the mutually coupled system we establish the maximum in the resonance fluorescence signal to be a robust fingerprint of the intermediate regime and observe signatures indicating the laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings ladder. In order to address the underlying physics we excite the coupled system via the matter component of fermionic nature undergoing saturation - in contrast to commonly used cavity-mediated excitation. C. Hopfmann et al., Transition from Jaynes-Cummings to Autler-Townes ladder in a quantum dot-microcavity system, Phys. Rev. B 95, 035302 (2017) arxiv.org/abs/1609.03462
Resonance fuorescence of a site-controlled quantum dot realized by the buried-stressor growth technique

Max Strauss, Arsenty Kaganskiy, Robert Voigt, Peter Schnauber, Jan-Hindrik Schulze, Sven Rodt, Andre Strittmatter, Stephan Reitzenstein
Site-controlled growth of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) represents a major advancement to achieve scalable quantum technology platforms. One immediate benefit is the deterministic integration of quantum emitters into optical microcavities. However, site-controlled growth of QDs is usually achieved at the cost of reduced optical quality. Here, we show that the buried-stressor growth technique enables the realization of high-quality site-controlled QDs with attractive optical and quantum optical properties. This is evidenced by performing excitation power dependent resonance fluorescence experiments at cryogenic temperatures showing QD emission linewidths down to 10 μeV. Resonant excitation leads to the observation of the Mollow triplet under CW excitation and enables coherent state preparation under pulsed excitation. Under resonant π-pulse excitation we observe clean single photon emission associated with g(2)(0)=0.12 limited by non-ideal laser suppression. M. Strauß et al., Resonance fuorescence of a site-controlled quantum dot realized by the buried-stressor growth technique, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111101 (2017) arxiv.org/abs/1612.08063
Pump-power-driven mode switching in a microcavity device and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation

H. A. M. Leymann, D. Vorberg, T.Lettau, C. Hopfmann, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Ketzmerick, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, A. Eckardt
We investigate the switching of the coherent emission mode of a bimodal microcavity device, occurring when the pump power is varied. We compare experimental data to theoretical results and identify the underlying mechanism to be based on the competition between the effective gain on the one hand and the intermode kinetics on the other. When the pumping is ramped up, above a threshold the mode with the largest effective gain starts to emit coherent light, corresponding to lasing. In contrast, in the limit of strong pumping it is the intermode kinetics that determines which mode acquires a large occupation and shows coherent emission. We point out that this latter mechanism is akin to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of massive bosons. Thus, the mode switching in our microcavity device can be viewed as a minimal instance of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. We, moreover, show that the switching from one cavity mode to the other occurs always via an intermediate phase where both modes are emitting coherent light and that it is associated with both superthermal intensity fluctuations and strong anticorrelations between both modes. H. A. M. Leymann et al., Pump-power-driven mode switching in a microcavity device and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation, ArXiv e-prints 1612.04312 (2016)
Two-photon interference from remote deterministic quantum dot microlenses

Alexander Thoma, Peter Schnauber, Jonas Böhm, Manuel Gschrey, Jan-Hindrik Schulze, André Strittmatter, Sven Rodt, Tobias Heindel, Stephan Reitzenstein
We report on two-photon interference (TPI) experiments using remote deterministic single-photon sources. Employing 3D in-situ electron-beam lithography, we fabricate quantum-light sources at specific target wavelengths by integrating pre-selected semiconductor quantum dots within monolithic microlenses. The individual single-photon sources show TPI visibilities of 49% and 22%, respectively, under pulsed p-shell excitation at 80 MHz. For the mutual TPI of the remote sources, we observe an uncorrected visibility of 29%, in quantitative agreement with the pure dephasing of the individual sources. Due to its efficient photon extraction within a broad spectral range (> 20 nm), our microlens-based approach is predestinated for future entanglement swapping experiments utilizing entangled photon pairs emitted by distant biexciton-exciton radiative cascades. A. Thoma et al., Two-photon interference from remote deterministic quantum dot microlenses, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 011104 (2016) arxiv.org/abs/1611.06859
Injection Locking of Quantum-Dot Microlasers Operating in the Few-Photon Regime

Elisabeth Schlottmann, Steffen Holzinger, Benjamin Lingnau, Kathy Lüdge, Christian Schneider, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, Janik Wolters, and Stephan Reitzenstein
We experimentally and theoretically investigate injection locking of quantum dot (QD) microlasers in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED). We observe frequency locking and phase-locking where cavity enhanced spontaneous emission enables simultaneous stable oscillation at the master frequency and at the solitary frequency of the slave microlaser. Measurements of the second-order autocorrelation function prove this simultaneous presence of both master and slave-like emission, where the former has coherent character with g(2)(0)=1 while the latter one has thermal character with g(2)(0)=2. Semi-classical rate-equations explain this peculiar behavior by cavity enhanced spontaneous emission and a low number of photons in the laser mode. E. Schlottmann et al., Injection Locking of Quantum-Dot Microlasers Operating in the Few-Photon Regime, Phys. Rev. Applied 6, 044023 (2016) Physical Review Applied Editors' Suggestion (October 2016) arxiv.org/abs/1604.02817
Time reordering of paired photons in a dressed three-level cascade

Samir Bounouar, Max Strauß, Alexander Carmele, Peter Schnauber, Alexander Thoma, Manuel Gschrey, Jan-Hindrik Schulze, André Strittmatter, Sven Rodt, Andreas Knorr, Stephan Reitzenstein
The two-photon dressing of a "three-level ladder" system, here the ground state, the exciton and the biexciton of a semiconductor quantum dot, leads to new eigenstates and allows one to manipulate the time ordering of the paired photons without unitary post processing. We show that, after spectral post-selection of the single dressed states, the time ordering of the cascaded photons can be removed or conserved. Our joint experimental and theoretical study demonstrates the high potential of a "ladder" system to be a versatile source of orthogonally polarized, bunched or antibunched pairs of photons. S. Bounouar et al., Time reordering of paired photons in a dressed three-level cascade, ArXiv e-prints 1610.08268 (2016)
CSAR 62 as negative-tone resist for high-contrast e-beam lithography at temperatures between 4 K and room temperature

Arsenty Kaganskiy, Tobias Heuser, Ronny Schmidt, Sven Rodt, Stephan Reitzenstein
The temperature dependence of the electron-beam sensitive resist CSAR 62 is investigated in its negative-tone regime. The writing temperatures span a wide range from 4 K to room temperature with the focus on the liquid helium temperature regime. The importance of low temperature studies is motivated by the application of CSAR 62 for deterministic nanophotonic device processing by means of in-situ electron-beam lithography. At low temperature, CSAR 62 exhibits a high contrast of 10.5 and a resolution of 49 nm. The etch stability is almost temperature independent and it is found that CSAR 62 does not suffer from peeling which limits the low temperature application of the standard electron-beam resist PMMA. As such, CSAR 62 is a very promising negative-tone resist for in-situ electron-beam lithography of high quality nanostructures at low temperature. A. Kaganskiy et al., CSAR 62 as negative-tone resist for high-contrast e-beam lithography at temperatures between 4 K and room temperature, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34, 061603 (2016) arxiv.org/abs/1611.07266
Photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy of a single two-level system

M. Strauß, M. Placke, S. Kreinberg, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, J. Wolters, S. Reitzenstein.
We investigate the influence of the photon statistics on the excitation dynamics of a single two level system. A single semiconductor quantum dot represents the two level system and is resonantly excited either with coherent laser light, or excited with chaotic light, with photon statistics corresponding to that of thermal radiation. Experimentally, we observe a reduced absorption cross-section under chaotic excitation in the steady-state. In the transient regime, the Rabi oscillations observable under coherent excitation disappear under chaotic excitation. Likewise, in the emission spectrum the well-known Mollow triplet, which we observe under coherent drive, disappears under chaotic excitation. Our observations are fully consistent with theoretical predictions based on the semi-classical Bloch equation approach. M. Strauß et al., Photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy of a single two-level system, Phys. Rev. B 93, 241306(R) (2016) arxiv.org/abs/1601.05234
Mode-switching induced super-thermal bunching in quantum-dot microlasers

Christoph Redlich, Benjamin Lingnau, Steffen Holzinger, Elisabeth Schlottmann, Sören Kreinberg, Christian Schneider, Martin Kamp, Sven Höfling, Janik Wolters, Stephan Reitzenstein, and Kathy Lüdge
The super-thermal photon bunching in quantum-dot (QD) micropillar lasers is investigated both experimentally and theoretically via simulations driven by dynamic considerations. Using stochastic multi-mode rate equations we obtain very good agreement between experiment and theory in terms of intensity profiles and intensity-correlation properties of the examined QD micro-laser's emission. Further investigations of the time-dependent emission show that super-thermal photon bunching occurs due to irregular mode-switching events in the bimodal lasers. Our bifurcation analysis reveals that these switchings find their origin in an underlying bistability, such that spontaneous emission noise is able to effectively perturb the two competing modes in a small parameter region. We thus ascribe the observed high photon correlation to dynamical multistabilities rather than quantum mechanical correlations. Redlich et al., Mode-switching induced super-thermal bunching in quantum-dot microlasers, New J. Phys. 18, 063011 (2016)

 

 

 

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