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# Publications

The dark exciton state in semiconductor quantum dots constitutes a long-lived solid-state qubit which has the potential to play an important role in implementations of solid-state based quantum information architectures. In this work, we exploit deterministically fabricated QD microlenses with enhanced photon extraction, to optically prepare and readout the dark exciton spin and observe its coherent precession. The optical access to the dark exciton is provided via spin-blockaded metastable biexciton states acting as heralding state, which are identified deploying polarization-sensitive spectroscopy as well as time-resolved photon cross-correlation experiments. Our experiments reveal a spin-precession period of the dark exciton of (0.82±0.01)ns corresponding to a fine-structure splitting of (5.0±0.7) μeV between its eigenstates |↑⇑±↓⇓⟩. By exploiting microlenses deterministically fabricated above pre-selected QDs, our work demonstrates the possibility to scale up implementations of quantum information processing schemes using the QD-confined dark exciton spin qubit, such as the generation of photonic cluster states or the realization of a solid-state-based quantum memory. T. Heindel et al., Accessing the dark exciton in deterministic quantum-dot microlenses, APL Photonics 2, 121303 (2017) featured headliner | Press Release |

The development of multi-node quantum optical circuits has attracted great attention in recent years. In particular, interfacing quantum-light sources, gates and detectors on a single chip is highly desirable for the realization of large networks. In this context, fabrication techniques that enable the deterministic integration of pre-selected quantum-light emitters into nanophotonic elements play a key role when moving forward to circuits containing multiple emitters. Here, we present the deterministic integration of an InAs quantum dot into a 50/50 multi-mode interference beamsplitter via in-situ electron beam lithography. We demonstrate the combined emitter-gate interface functionality by measuring triggered single-photon emission on-chip with g^{(2)}(0) = 0.13 ± 0.02. Due to its high patterning resolution as well as spectral and spatial control, in-situ electron beam lithography allows for integration of pre-selected quantum emitters into complex photonic systems. Being a scalable single-step approach, it paves the way towards multi-node, fully integrated quantum photonic chips. P. Schnauber et al., Deterministic integration of quantum dots into on-chip multi-mode interference beamsplitters using in-situ electron beam lithography, ArXiv e-prints 1712.03837 (2017) |

Two-level emitters constitute main building blocks of photonic quantum systems and are model systems for the exploration of quantum optics in the solid state. Most interesting is the strict-resonant excitation of such emitters to generate close to ideal quantum light and to control their occupation coherently. Up till now related experiments have been performed exclusively using bulky lasers which hinders the application of resonantly driven two-level emitters in photonic quantum systems. Here we perform quantum-optical spectroscopy of a two-level system using a compact high-$\beta$ microlaser as excitation source. The two-level system is based on a semiconductor quantum dot (QD), which is excited resonantly by a fiber-coupled electrically driven micropillar laser. In this way we dress the excitonic state of the QD under continuous wave excitation and trigger the emission of single-photons with strong multi-photon suppression (g(2)(0)=0.02) and high photon indistinguishably (V=57 ± 9%) via pulsed resonant excitation at 156 MHz. S. Kreinberg et al.,Quantum-optical spectroscopy of a two-level system using an electrically driven micropillar laser as resonant excitation source, ArXiv e-prints, 1711.09705 (2017) |

We report on the realization of micropillars with site-controlled quantum dots (SCQDs) in the active layer. The SCQDs are grown via the buried stressor approach which allows for the positioned growth and device integration of a controllable number of QDs with high optical quality. This concept is very powerful as the number and the position of SCQDs in the cavity can be simultaneously controlled by the design of the buried stressor. The fabricated micropillars exhibit a high degree of position control for the QDs above the buried stressor and Q-factors of up to 12000 at an emission wavelength around 930 nm. We experimentally analyze and numerically model the cavity Q-factor, the mode volume, the Purcell factor and the photon-extraction efficiency as a function of the aperture diameter of the buried stressor. Exploiting these SCQD micropillars, we experimentally observe the Purcell enhancement in the single-QD regime with F_P = 4.3 ± 0.3. A. Kaganskiy et al., Micropillars with a controlled number of site-controlled quantum dots, ArXiv e-prints, 1711.09235 (2017) |

Mollow physics in the two-photon regime shows interesting features such as path-controlled time-reordering of photon pairs without the need to delay them. Here, we calculate analytically the two-photon correlations g(2)(τ), essential to discuss and study such phenomena in the resonant-driven dressed-state regime. It is shown that there exists upper and lower bounds of the g(2)(τ)−function for certain spectrally-selected photon pairs. Recent reported experiments agree with the presented theory and thereby it is shown that the resonant-driven four-level system is an interesting source for steerable quantum light in quantum cascade setups. We furthermore discuss the unlikeliness to observe antibunching for the delay time τ=0 in the exciton-biexciton correlation functions in such experiments, since antibunching stems from a coherent and in-phase superposition of different photon emission events. Due to the occuring laser photon scattering, this coherent superposition state is easily disturbed and leads to correlation functions of g(2)(0) = 1 A. Carmele, S. Bounouar, M. Strauss, S. Reitzenstein and A. Knorr, Correlations of cascaded photons: An analytical study in the two-photon Mollow regime, ArXiv e-prints 1710.03031 (2017) |

A photon-number resolving transition edge sensor (TES) is used to measure the photon-number distribution of two microcavity lasers. The investigated devices are bimodal microlasers with similar emission intensity and photon statistics with respect to the photon autocorrelation. Both high-beta microlasers show partly thermal and partly coherent emission around the lasing threshold. For higher pump powers, the strong mode of microlaser A emits Poissonian distributed photons while the emission of the weak mode is thermal. In contrast, laser B shows a bistability resulting in overlayed thermal and Poissonian distributions. While a standard Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment cannot distinguish between simple thermal emission of laser A and the mode switching of laser B, a TES allow us to measure the photon-number distribution which provides important insight into the underlying emission processes. Indeed, our experimental data and its theoretical description by a master equation approach show that TESs are capable of revealing subtle effects like temporal mode switching of bimodal microlasers. As such our studies clearly demonstrate the huge benefit and importance of investigating nanophotonic devices via photon-number resolving sensors. E. Schlottmann et al.,Exploring the Photon-Number Distribution of Bimodal Microlasers, ArXiv e-prints, 1709.04312 (2017) |

We report on the realization of scalable single-photon sources (SPSs) based on a single site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD) and deterministically fabricated microlenses. The fabrication process comprises the buried-stressor growth technique complemented with low-temperature in-situ electron-beam lithography for the integration of SCQDs into microlens structures with high yield and high alignment accuracy. The microlens-approach leads to a broadband enhancement of the photon extraction efficiency of up to (21 ± 2 %) and a high suppression of multi-photon events with g(2)(τ = 0) < 0.06 without background subtraction. As such the combination of site-controlled growth of QDs and in-situ electron-beam lithography is relevant for arrays of efficient SPSs which can be applied in photonic quantum circuits and advanced quantum computation schemes. A. Kaganskiy et al., Enhancing the photon-extraction efficiency of site-controlled quantum dots by deterministically fabricated microlenses, Optics Communications, 418, 162-166 (2018) ArXiv e-prints, 1708.03512 (2017) |

Insight is given into the regime where strong light-matter coupling and lasing coincide in cavity- QED systems. An analytic expression is provided for the emission spectrum and for the condition marking the transition from strong to weak coupling that remains valid close to the laser threshold. In a direct comparison between theory and experiment, we demonstrate the applicability of our approach and give evidence for the coexistence of strong coupling and lasing in a high-beta quantum- dot microcavity laser. We address the limitations of present realizations of quantum-dot microlasers operating in the strong coupling regime and derive parameters under which true single emitter lasing can be achieved in the future. C. Gies et al., Strong light-matter coupling in the presence of lasing, Phys. Rev. A 96, 023806 (2017) ArXiv e-prints 1606.05591 (2016) |

We investigate the switching of the coherent emission mode of a bimodal microcavity device, occurring when the pump power is varied. We compare experimental data to theoretical results and identify the underlying mechanism based on the competition between the effective gain, on the one hand, and the intermode kinetics, on the other.When the pumping is ramped up, above a threshold, the mode with the largest effective gain starts to emit coherent light, corresponding to lasing. In contrast, in the limit of strong pumping, it is the intermode kinetics that determines which mode acquires a large occupation and shows coherent emission. We point out that this latter mechanism is akin to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of massive bosons. Thus, the mode switching in our microcavity device can be viewed as a minimal instance of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. Moreover, we show that the switching from one cavity mode to the other always occurs via an intermediate phase where both modes are emitting coherent light and that it is associated with both superthermal intensity fluctuations and strong anticorrelations between both modes. H.A.M. Leymann et al., Pump-Power-Driven Mode Switching in a Microcavity Device and Its Relation to Bose-Einstein Condensation, Phys. Rev. X 7, 021045 (2017) ArXiv e-prints, 1612.04312 (2016) |

Integrated single-photon sources with high photonextraction efficiency are key building blocks for applications in the field of quantum communications. We report on a bright singlephoton source realized by on-chip integration of a deterministic quantum dot microlens with a 3D-printed multilens micro-objective. The device concept benefits from a sophisticated combination of in situ 3D electron-beam lithography to realize the quantum dot microlens and 3D femtosecond direct laser writing for creation of the micro-objective. In this way, we obtain a high-quality quantum device with broadband photon-extraction efficiency of (40 ± 4)% and high suppression of multiphoton emission events with g(2)(τ = 0) < 0.02. Our results highlight the opportunities that arise from tailoring the optical properties of quantum emitters using integrated optics with high potential for the further development of plug-and-play fiber-coupled single-photon sources. S. Fischbach et al.,Single Quantum Dot with Microlens and 3D-Printed Micro-objective as Integrated Bright Single-Photon Source, ACS Photonics ASAP (2017) |

The two-photon dressing of a “three-level ladder” system, here the ground state, the exciton, and the biexciton of a semiconductor quantum dot, leads to new eigenstates and allows one to manipulate the time ordering of the paired photons without unitary postprocessing.We show that, after spectral postselection of the single dressed states, the time ordering of the cascaded photons can be removed or conserved. Our joint experimental and theoretical study demonstrates the high potential of a “ladder” system to be a versatile source of orthogonally polarized, bunched or antibunched pairs of photons. Physical Review Letters 118, 233601 (2017) doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.233601 ArXiv e-prints, 1610.08268 (2016) |

Measured and calculated results are presented on the emission properties of a new class of emitters operating in the cavity quantum electrodynamics regime. The structures are based on high-finesse GaAs/AlAs micropillar cavities, each with an active medium consisting of a layer of InGaAs quantum dots and distinguishing feature of having substantial fraction of spontaneous emission channeled into one cavity mode (high-beta factor). This paper shows that the usual criterion for lasing with a conventional (low-beta factor) cavity, a sharp nonlinearity in an input-output curve accompanied by noticeable linewidth narrowing, has to be reinforced by the equal-time second-order photon autocorrelation function for confirming lasing. It will also show that the equal-time second-order photon autocorrelation function is useful for recognizing superradiance, a manifestation of the correlations possible in high- microcavities operating with quantum dots. In terms of consolidating the collected data and identifying the physics underlying laser action, both theory and experiment suggest a sole dependence on intracavity photon number. Evidence for this comes from all our measured and calculated data on emission coherence and fluctuation, for devices ranging from LEDs and cavity-enhanced LEDs to lasers, lying on the same two curves: one for linewidth narrowing versus intracavity photon number and the other for g(2)(0) versus intracavity photon number.
Light: Science & Applications (2017) 6, e17030; doi: 10.1038/lsa.2017.30. ArXiv e-prints, 1610.04129 (2016) |

Implementing time-delayed feedback in optoelectronic circuits allows one to uncover the rich physics and application potential of nonlinear dynamics. Important feedback effects are, for instance, the generation of broadband chaos, or laser self-pulsing. We explore the effect of optoelectronic feedback in an ultracompact microlaser–microdetector assembly operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED). This system is used to generate self-pulsing at MHz frequencies in the emission of a microlaser, which is qualitatively explained by a rate equation model taking cQED effects into account. The results show promise for exploring chaos in ultracompact nanophotonic systems and for technological approaches toward chaos-based secure communication, random number generation, and self-pulsed single photon sources on a highly integrated semiconductor platform. P. Munnelly et al., On-chip optoelectronic feedback in a micropillar laser-detector assembly , Optica 4, 303–306 (2017) See Press Release: Chaotische Lichtpulse in winzigen Quantenbauteilen |

We study experimentally and theoretically a coherently-driven strongly-coupled quantum dot-microcavity system. Our focus is on physics of the unexplored intermediate excitation regime where the resonant laser field dresses a strongly-coupled single exciton-photon (polariton) system resulting in a ladder of laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings states. In that case both the coupling of the emitter to the confined light field of the microcavity and to the light field of the external laser are equally important, as proved by observation of injection pulling of the polariton branches by an external laser. This intermediate interaction regime is of particular interest since it connects the purely quantum mechanical Jaynes-Cummings ladder and the semi-classical Autler-Townes ladder. Exploring the driving strength-dependence of the mutually coupled system we establish the maximum in the resonance fluorescence signal to be a robust fingerprint of the intermediate regime and observe signatures indicating the laser-dressed Jaynes-Cummings ladder. In order to address the underlying physics we excite the coupled system via the matter component of fermionic nature undergoing saturation - in contrast to commonly used cavity-mediated excitation. C. Hopfmann et al., Transition from Jaynes-Cummings to Autler-Townes ladder in a quantum dot-microcavity system, Phys. Rev. B 95, 035302 (2017) arxiv.org/abs/1609.03462 |

Site-controlled growth of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) represents a major advancement to achieve scalable quantum technology platforms. One immediate benefit is the deterministic integration of quantum emitters into optical microcavities. However, site-controlled growth of QDs is usually achieved at the cost of reduced optical quality. Here, we show that the buried-stressor growth technique enables the realization of high-quality site-controlled QDs with attractive optical and quantum optical properties. This is evidenced by performing excitation power dependent resonance fluorescence experiments at cryogenic temperatures showing QD emission linewidths down to 10 μeV. Resonant excitation leads to the observation of the Mollow triplet under CW excitation and enables coherent state preparation under pulsed excitation. Under resonant π-pulse excitation we observe clean single photon emission associated with g(2)(0)=0.12 limited by non-ideal laser suppression. M. Strauß et al., Resonance fuorescence of a site-controlled quantum dot realized by the buried-stressor growth technique, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 111101 (2017) arxiv.org/abs/1612.08063 |

We investigate the switching of the coherent emission mode of a bimodal microcavity device, occurring when the pump power is varied. We compare experimental data to theoretical results and identify the underlying mechanism to be based on the competition between the effective gain on the one hand and the intermode kinetics on the other. When the pumping is ramped up, above a threshold the mode with the largest effective gain starts to emit coherent light, corresponding to lasing. In contrast, in the limit of strong pumping it is the intermode kinetics that determines which mode acquires a large occupation and shows coherent emission. We point out that this latter mechanism is akin to the equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of massive bosons. Thus, the mode switching in our microcavity device can be viewed as a minimal instance of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. We, moreover, show that the switching from one cavity mode to the other occurs always via an intermediate phase where both modes are emitting coherent light and that it is associated with both superthermal intensity fluctuations and strong anticorrelations between both modes. H. A. M. Leymann et al., Pump-power-driven mode switching in a microcavity device and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation, ArXiv e-prints 1612.04312 (2016) |

We report on two-photon interference (TPI) experiments using remote deterministic single-photon sources. Employing 3D in-situ electron-beam lithography, we fabricate quantum-light sources at specific target wavelengths by integrating pre-selected semiconductor quantum dots within monolithic microlenses. The individual single-photon sources show TPI visibilities of 49% and 22%, respectively, under pulsed p-shell excitation at 80 MHz. For the mutual TPI of the remote sources, we observe an uncorrected visibility of 29%, in quantitative agreement with the pure dephasing of the individual sources. Due to its efficient photon extraction within a broad spectral range (> 20 nm), our microlens-based approach is predestinated for future entanglement swapping experiments utilizing entangled photon pairs emitted by distant biexciton-exciton radiative cascades. A. Thoma et al., Two-photon interference from remote deterministic quantum dot microlenses, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 011104 (2016) arxiv.org/abs/1611.06859 |

We experimentally and theoretically investigate injection locking of quantum dot (QD) microlasers in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED). We observe frequency locking and phase-locking where cavity enhanced spontaneous emission enables simultaneous stable oscillation at the master frequency and at the solitary frequency of the slave microlaser. Measurements of the second-order autocorrelation function prove this simultaneous presence of both master and slave-like emission, where the former has coherent character with g(2)(0)=1 while the latter one has thermal character with g(2)(0)=2. Semi-classical rate-equations explain this peculiar behavior by cavity enhanced spontaneous emission and a low number of photons in the laser mode. E. Schlottmann et al., Injection Locking of Quantum-Dot Microlasers Operating in the Few-Photon Regime, Phys. Rev. Applied 6, 044023 (2016) Physical Review Applied Editors' Suggestion (October 2016) arxiv.org/abs/1604.02817 |

The two-photon dressing of a "three-level ladder" system, here the ground state, the exciton and the biexciton of a semiconductor quantum dot, leads to new eigenstates and allows one to manipulate the time ordering of the paired photons without unitary post processing. We show that, after spectral post-selection of the single dressed states, the time ordering of the cascaded photons can be removed or conserved. Our joint experimental and theoretical study demonstrates the high potential of a "ladder" system to be a versatile source of orthogonally polarized, bunched or antibunched pairs of photons. S. Bounouar et al., Time reordering of paired photons in a dressed three-level cascade, ArXiv e-prints 1610.08268 (2016) |

The temperature dependence of the electron-beam sensitive resist CSAR 62 is investigated in its negative-tone regime. The writing temperatures span a wide range from 4 K to room temperature with the focus on the liquid helium temperature regime. The importance of low temperature studies is motivated by the application of CSAR 62 for deterministic nanophotonic device processing by means of in-situ electron-beam lithography. At low temperature, CSAR 62 exhibits a high contrast of 10.5 and a resolution of 49 nm. The etch stability is almost temperature independent and it is found that CSAR 62 does not suffer from peeling which limits the low temperature application of the standard electron-beam resist PMMA. As such, CSAR 62 is a very promising negative-tone resist for in-situ electron-beam lithography of high quality nanostructures at low temperature. A. Kaganskiy et al., CSAR 62 as negative-tone resist for high-contrast e-beam lithography at temperatures between 4 K and room temperature, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 34, 061603 (2016) arxiv.org/abs/1611.07266 |

We investigate the influence of the photon statistics on the excitation dynamics of a single two level system. A single semiconductor quantum dot represents the two level system and is resonantly excited either with coherent laser light, or excited with chaotic light, with photon statistics corresponding to that of thermal radiation. Experimentally, we observe a reduced absorption cross-section under chaotic excitation in the steady-state. In the transient regime, the Rabi oscillations observable under coherent excitation disappear under chaotic excitation. Likewise, in the emission spectrum the well-known Mollow triplet, which we observe under coherent drive, disappears under chaotic excitation. Our observations are fully consistent with theoretical predictions based on the semi-classical Bloch equation approach. M. Strauß et al., Photon-statistics excitation spectroscopy of a single two-level system, Phys. Rev. B 93, 241306(R) (2016) arxiv.org/abs/1601.05234 |

The super-thermal photon bunching in quantum-dot (QD) micropillar lasers is investigated both experimentally and theoretically via simulations driven by dynamic considerations. Using stochastic multi-mode rate equations we obtain very good agreement between experiment and theory in terms of intensity profiles and intensity-correlation properties of the examined QD micro-laser's emission. Further investigations of the time-dependent emission show that super-thermal photon bunching occurs due to irregular mode-switching events in the bimodal lasers. Our bifurcation analysis reveals that these switchings find their origin in an underlying bistability, such that spontaneous emission noise is able to effectively perturb the two competing modes in a small parameter region. We thus ascribe the observed high photon correlation to dynamical multistabilities rather than quantum mechanical correlations. Redlich et al., Mode-switching induced super-thermal bunching in quantum-dot microlasers, New J. Phys. 18, 063011 (2016) |

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